ISSN 2075-9711 (печатная версия)
ISSN 2076-8400 (электронная версия)
Ежеквартальный научный журнал на испанском языке.Издается ИЛА РАН
ISSN 2075-9711 (Print)
ISSN 2076-8400 (Online)
Quarterly peer reviewed scientific journal published in Spanish language by the Institute of Latin American Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILA RAS)
ISSN 2075-9711 (Print)
ISSN 2076-8400 (Online)
Revista científica trimestral en español. Editada por el Instituto de Latinoamérica de la Academia de Ciencias de Rusia (ILA ACR)

Iberoamerica 2022 №2

  • Русский
  • English
  • Español

This issue of the journal includes five blocks. Vladimir M. Davydov prepared an article “From geopolitical crisis towards military-political clash and reformatting of the world order”. The author underlines that fearing the leadership in the world economy and politics would slip out to alternative centers of influence. The “collective West” has shifted towards a confrontation in a drive to oust the Russian Federation, but with China in mind as the next target. The military-political conflict of 2022, stemming from the geopolitical crisis of the last decade, means that a reformatting of the former world order is taking place. That implies a fragmentation of the world economy and political system. Considering the conditions of the economic war, power of the the global factors is being limited and the role of regional processes is being strengthened. In the foreseeable future, this may affect trends of the the development of Latin American countries and the consequences for them. At the same time, if the tension in the global affairs keeps growing, one should expect that there would be a complication in security issues and a corresponding change in the functions, place, and role of the armed forces in the socio-political life of Latin American nations.

The second block consists of two articles and is devoted to the problem of regionalism and convergence processes. The author of the first one, Maria Esther Morales-Fajardo, analyzes the formation of the Pacific Alliance, presenting it as a regional integration process of a commercial and economic nature, the important components of which are the companies and the investment projects. The author concludes that the trade turnover and the consolidation of a free trade area based on the concept of deep integration and strategic regionalism are the best way for Latin American economic cooperation. The article by Violetta M. Tayar deals with the cooperation between European Union (EU) and Latin America. The author underlines that there are divergences and convergences inside the modern transcontinental dialogue. In the last years, a certain retreat from the interregional economic association took place. The disparity in the trade links between the two regions and in the matter of investments thwarts a lot the steps, which aim at building up a staunch strategic alliance between EU and Latin America. The author concludes that nowadays the EU finds itself in a transition stage of the interregional cooperation and seeks a new kind of leadership in Latin America under the conditions of growing competition with the United States and China.

The articles of the third block raise the problem of political regimes in Latin America. The article “Typology of Political Regimes: Quantitative Methods” prepared by Zbigniew W. Iwanowski attempts to propose a typology of political regimes in Latin America based on quantitative parameters. Based on David Nolan's diagram and Wayne Brittenden's political compass, the author placed on the abscissa axis (left - right) the ideological currents depending on socio-economic factors, and on the ordinate axis (full democracies – totalitarian regimes)  are reflected the indicators measuring electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. When ranking the level of democratic regimes, the data calculated according to the Tatu Vanhanen formula and the variables proposed by different think tanks are compared. Moving further away from the political center to the left or right, authoritarian tendencies tend to intensify. The second article of this block, prepared by Anton S.  Andreev, studies the contemporary left movement in Uruguay (2019-2022). The author notes that during this period it experienced two defeats. In 2019, a right-wing coalition won the general election and returned to power after 15 years. In March 2022, the Frente Amplio organized a referendum to overturn the most controversial decisions of the current government, in which only a minority supported the position of the left. Based on media materials, party and state documents, and statistical data, the author shows how the composition of the Uruguayan leftists has changed in recent years, and analyses the reasons for their electoral failure.

The fourth block includes the article by Ilya A. Sokov, which examines the determinants of cross-border cooperation between Mexico and the United States in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The author compares the approaches of the federal and local governments of these countries, as well as of civil society organizations, to address the emerging socio-economic problems on the US-Mexico border in 2020-2021. A separate issue of the study includes a comparative analysis of the migration policy implemented by the administrations of Donald Trump and Joe Biden during the pandemic. The author concludes that the measures used for the cross-border cooperation were not effective and poorly prepared. The article written by Sergey S. Zhiltsov, Elizaveta Yu. Petrenko and Manuel Ignacio Carreras analyses the opportunities and challenges of the relations between Latin America and China. The Chinese policy in the region is pragmatic and determined by long-term interests. Implementing an ambitious investment policy, Pekin has consistently expanded access to the markets for finished products and natural resources. This will allow solving problems to maintain high rates of its economic development. At the same time, China have played a positive role for the Latin America in difficult periods for the world economy. The achieved volume of trade made it possible to minimize the negative consequences of financial shocks and to overcome the difficulties in the relations with other extra-regional centers of power.

In the last block Nadezhda M. Sim considers the process of forming of Andalusian style in the architecture of Southern Spain in the 15th – 16th centuries. She bases on the comparison of two types of constructions – a mosque and a cathedral – taking into account the equality of the artistic importance of Moorish and Christian art. The author addresses to the ways and methods of the expressive means, the diversity of constructive, decorative, and applied forms that transform Oriental and Occidental traditions. The article discloses the most important principles of the style evolution of Christian aesthetics of the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance era. Denis G. Fedosov aims to compare the retable and the iconostasis, the two most significant interior elements of the Christian Churches, particularly Spanish and Latin American, on the one hand, and Russian, on the other. He gives some specific examples, as well as a general analysis of their role in the religious service. One may notice some important differences between the Catholic and Orthodox churches and their role in the history of art and religion. 

IBEROAMERICA, 2022, num. 2 (April-June)



Vladimir M. Davydov. From geopolitical crisis towards  military-political clash and reformatting of the world oder


María Esther Morales-Fajardo. From open regionalism to strategic regionalism: investment and enterprises in the Pacific Alliance

Violetta M. Tayar. European Union and Latin America. Process of convergences and divergences


Zbigniew W. Iwanowski. Typology of political regimes: quantitative methods

Anton S. Andreev. The left movement of Uruguay in 2019-2022: ideology and strategy in the context of a right threat


Ilya A. Sokov. Mexico-USA: frontier problems in pandemic COVID-19

Sergey S. Zhiltsov, Elizaveta Y. Petrenko, Manuel Ignacio Carreras. Relations between Latin America and the People's Republic of China: opportunities and challenges


Nadezhda M. Sim. Cathedrals of Andalusia. Artistic assimilation of spanish-muslim and spanish-christian traditions

Denis G. Fedosov. Retable and Iconostasis (16th - 18th centuries). Several observations on similarities and differences